Toxoplasmosis in a 17-month-old Nigerian: A case report

Toxoplasmosis is the most serious manifestation of infection, resulting from the vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii (Tgondii) transplacentally, from a parasitemic mother to her offspring. It could also be acquired. Case Presentation: E.B is a 17-month-old female baby who presented with recurrent fever x 16/12., chronic cough x 16/12, recurrent stooling x 15/12, recurrent ear discharge x 15/12, failure to gain weight x 15/12, and delayed developmental milestones. Examination revealed an acutely ill- or chronically ill-looking child in mild respiratory distress, afebrile (36.5°C), anicteric, acyanozed, moderately pale, well hydrated with generalized lymphadenopathy (axillary, inguinal, cervical), no digital clubbing, and no pedal fullness. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed bilateral basal ganglia calcifications with a focal cystic area in the left basal ganglia; bilateral multifocal intracerebral hypodensities were noted from the frontal to the occipital lobes at different levels bilaterally, with calcifications limited to the basal ganglia. Serological test revealed the patient’s serum to be positive for toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG). Conclusion: Toxoplasmosis, though rare, can cause mortality and morbidity in children. Thus, a high index of suspicion is warranted in management.

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